Stabilized rice bran (SRB), a source of complex carbohydrates, tocols, γ-oryzanols, and polyphenols, was treated with carbohydrases and heat to yield two fractions, rice bran water solubles (RBWS), and rice bran fiber concentrates (RBFC). Stabilized rice bran and its fractions were fed for 60 days to insulin-dependent and noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM = Type I and NIDDM = Type II) subjects to determine possible effects on serum hemoglobin, carbohydrate and lipid parameters. The Type I subjects (n = 22, 26, and 20) fed Stabilized rice bran, rice bran water solubles, and rice bran fiber concentrates plus AHA Step-1 diet reduced glycosylated hemoglobin 1%, 11%, and 10%, respectively. The fasting serum glucose levels were also reduced significantly (P < 0.01) with stabilized rice bran (9%), rice bran water solubles (29%), and rice bran fiber concentrates (19%).
The Type II subjects (n = 31, and 26) fed rice bran water solubles and rice bran fiber concentrates plus AHA Step-1 diet had decreased levels of glycosylated hemoglobin (15% and 11%) and fasting glucose (33% and 22%; P < 0.001), respectively. Serum insulin levels were increased (4%) with rice bran water solubles in both types of diabetes. The reduction of glycosylated hemoglobin and a slight increase in insulin levels indicate that consumption of rice bran water solubles can control blood glucose levels in human diabetes. Serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, apolipoprotein B, and triglycerides levels were reduced with rice bran fiber concentrates in the Type I (10, 16, 10, 7%) and Type II groups (12, 15, 10, 8%), respectively. These results indicate that rice bran water solubles significantly reduces hyperglycemia (P < 0.01), whereas rice bran fiber concentrates reduces hyperlipidemia (P < 0.05) in both types of diabetes. Therefore, these natural products can be used as nutritional supplements for the control of both types of diabetes mellitus in humans.